What are the applications of peptides?

 KNOWLEDGE    |      2023-03-28

It IS MAINLY divided into MEDICAL POLYPEPTIDE drugs, peptide antibiotics, vaccines, agricultural antimicrobial peptides, feed peptides, daily chemical cosmetics, SOYBEAN peptides for food, CORN peptides, yeast peptides, sea cucumber peptides.

From the functional point of view, it can be divided into antihypertensive peptide, antioxidant peptide, cholesterol-lowering peptide, opioid active peptide, high F-value oligopeptide, food flavor peptide and so on.

Active peptide, with nutrition, hormone, enzyme inhibition, regulation of immune, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant has a very close relationship. Peptides are generally divided into: peptide drugs and peptide health products. Traditional peptide drugs are mainly peptide hormones. The development of peptide drugs has been developed in various fields of disease prevention and control, especially in the following fields.

Anti-tumor polypeptide

Tumorigenesis is the result of many factors, but ultimately involves the regulation of oncogene expression. Many tumor-related genes and regulatory factors have been found in 2013. Screening peptides that bind specifically to these genes and regulatory factors has become a new hotspot in the search for anticancer drugs. For example, somatostatin has been used to treat endocrine tumors of the digestive system; American researchers found a hexapeptide that can significantly inhibit adenocarcinoma in vivo; Swiss scientists have discovered an octapeptide that induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

Antiviral polypeptide

By binding to specific receptors on host cells, viruses adsorb cells and rely on their own specific proteases for protein processing and nucleic acid replication. Therefore, peptides binding to host cell receptors or active sites such as viral proteases can be screened from the peptide library for antiviral treatment. In 2013, Canada, Italy and other countries have screened many small peptides with disease resistance from the peptide library, and some of them have entered the stage of clinical trials. In June 2004, the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences reported that the important direction of knowledge innovation project undertaken by the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, "Research on the mechanism of SARS-CoV cell fusion and Fusion inhibitors", which was jointly undertaken by the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Center for Modern Virology, Life Sciences, Wuhan University, had made significant progress. Experiments have proved that the designed HR2 peptide can effectively inhibit the infection of cultured cells by SARS virus, and the effective inhibition concentration is at the concentration of several nmoles. Important progress has also been made in the viral infection inhibition experiments of synthesized and expressed HR1 peptide and the in vitro binding experiments of HR1 and HR2. The peptide drugs developed to prevent the fusion of the SARS virus can prevent the infection of the virus and, in the case of infected patients, prevent the further spread of the virus in the body. The polypeptide drug has both preventive and therapeutic functions. Researchers at the Cell Engineering Research Center of the Fourth Military Medical University have synthesized nine peptides that can effectively prevent and inhibit the invasion of SARS virus into cells.

Cytokines mimic peptides

The use of receptors for known cytokines to screen cytokine mimics from peptide libraries has become a research hotspot in 2011. Screening by people abroad erythropoietin, people boost platelet hormone, growth hormone, nerve growth factor and that a variety of growth factors such as interleukin - 1 simulation peptide, the simulation of the peptide amino acid sequence and its corresponding cell factor is different, the sequence of amino acids but has the activity of cytokines, and has the advantages of small molecular weight. In 2013 these cytokine mimicking peptides are under preclinical or clinical investigation.

Antibacterial active peptide

When insects are stimulated by the external environment, a large number of cationic peptides with antibacterial activity are produced. In 2013, more than 100 kinds of antimicrobial peptides have been screened out. In vitro and in vivo experiments have confirmed that many antimicrobial peptides not only have strong antibacterial and bactericidal ability, but also can kill tumor cells.

Peptide vaccine

Peptide vaccines and nucleic acid vaccines were one of the most important aspects in the field of vaccine research in 2013. A lot of research and development of viral peptide vaccines were carried out in the world in 2013. For example, in 1999, NIH published the clinical trial results of two kinds of HIV-I virus peptide vaccines on human subjects; A polypeptide was screened from the outer membrane protein E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV), which could stimulate the body to produce protective antibodies. The United States is developing a malaria polyvalent antigen polypeptide vaccine; The human papillomavirus peptide vaccine for cervical cancer has entered phase II clinical trials. China has also done a lot of work in the research of a variety of polypeptide vaccines.

Peptides for diagnosis

The main use of peptides in diagnostic reagents is as antigens, antibodies to detect the corresponding pathogenic organisms. Polypeptide antigens are more specific than native microbial or parasitic protein antigens and are easier to prepare. Antibody detection reagents assembled with polypeptide antigens in 2013 include: A, B, C, G liver disease virus, HIV, human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, rubella virus, Treponema pallidum, cysticercosis, trypanosoma, Lyme disease and rheumatoid detection reagents. Most of the peptide antigens used were obtained from the native protein of the corresponding pathogenic body, and some were completely new peptides obtained from the peptide library.